_Between 2001 - 2007 I worked primarily on metal substrates. I began with steel using acids and fire to etch, bubble and scar solvents and pigments into the metal. I then turned to aluminum for it's ability to retain it's shape after setting the piece completely on fire. While the piece was on fire, I would then manipulate the burning solvents. Later work on metal focused primarily on the soft carbon soot markings left by fire. The violent action of the fire leaves it's trace on the surface either subtly or etched deeply into the surface. Only upon close inspection would one sometimes see scarring and markings left behind from the event. Much like a person who might be scarred from a traumatic experience, the fire leaves it's indelible mark on the metal.